HRVQA#

This page describes the usage of Dataloader and Datamodule for HRVQA, a high-resolution aerial VQA dataset based on the Open data provided by the Dutch governmental organizations. It was first published by Li et al. [1]. The dataset as well as more details can be found on their website. A small example of the data used is distributed with this package.

This module contains two classes, a standard torch.util.data.Dataset and a pytorch_lightning.LightningDataModule that encapsulates the Dataset for easy use in pytorch_lightning applications. The Dataset uses a BENLMDBReader to read images a LMDB file. Questions and Answers are read using JSON files.

HRVQADataSet#

In its most basic form, the Dataset only needs the base path of the image and json files, if the path is not “./”. The path should follow the same structure as it is when downloaded and extracted using the official website.

.
├── HRVQA
    ├── images
    │   ├── 1.png
    │   ├── 2.png
    │   ├── ...
    │   └── 53512.png
    └── jsons
        ├── test_question.json
        ├── train_answer.json
        ├── train_question.json
        ├── val_answer.json
        └── val_question.json

from configilm.extra.DataSets import HRVQA_DataSet

ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path  # path to dataset
)

img, question, answer = ds[4]
Size: torch.Size([3, 1024, 1024])
Question: what is the main transportation of this image?
Question (start): [101, 2054, 2003, 1996, 2364, 5193, 1997, 2023, 3746, 1029, 102, 0, 0, 0, 0]
Answer: car
Answer (start): tensor([0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.])
../../_images/de4618c3c259ee4618742b4cd97887c6eb4fb3bd494c870671b64cc8fc0cd4a8.png

Tokenizer and Tokenization#

As we can see, this Dataset uses a tokenizer to generate the Question out of a natural language text. If no tokenizer is provided, a default one will be used, however this may lead to bad performance if not accounted for. The tokenizer can be configured as input parameter.

from configilm.ConfigILM import _get_hf_model

tokenizer, _ = _get_hf_model("prajjwal1/bert-tiny")

ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    tokenizer=tokenizer
)
img, question, answer = ds[0]

Tip

Usually this tokenizer is provided by the model itself as shown in the VQA example during dataset creation.

During tokenization a sequence of tokens (integers) of specific length is generated. The length of this sequence can be set with the parameter seq_length. If the generated tokens are shorter than the sequence length, the sequence will be padded with zeros. If it is longer, the sequence is truncated.

Note

Most tokenizer use an ‘End of Sequence’ token that will always be the last one in the non-padded sequence.

ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    seq_length=16
)
_, question1, _ = ds[0]
print(question1)
[101, 2515, 2311, 4839, 1999, 2023, 3746, 1029, 102, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    seq_length=8
)
_, question2, _ = ds[0]
print(question2)
[101, 2515, 2311, 4839, 1999, 2023, 3746, 102]

The tokenizer can also be used to reconstruct the input/question from the IDs including the special tokens:

print(f"Question 1: '{tokenizer.decode(question1)}'")
print(f"Question 2: '{tokenizer.decode(question2)}'")
Question 1: '[CLS] does building exist in this image? [SEP] [PAD] [PAD] [PAD] [PAD] [PAD] [PAD] [PAD]'
Question 2: '[CLS] does building exist in this image [SEP]'

or without:

print(f"Question 1: '{tokenizer.decode(question1, skip_special_tokens=True)}'")
print(f"Question 2: '{tokenizer.decode(question2, skip_special_tokens=True)}'")
Question 1: 'does building exist in this image?'
Question 2: 'does building exist in this image'

Splits#

It is possible to load only a specific split ('train', 'val') in the dataset. The images are loaded on demand based on the requested question. By default (None), both are loaded into the same Dataset.

_ = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="val",
    tokenizer=tokenizer
)

Because the Dataset does not define a 'test' split, an option to subdivide the 'val' split was added. This option divides the split at random based on a seed and a ratio provided.
Using 'test' means, that the same data as 'val' is used.
To split the dataset, use 'test-div' and 'val-div'. Provided the same div_seed and split_size (given as rounded-down proportion of the set that is in the 'val' split) this option will fully divide the samples without information leak.

ds_v = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="val",
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    div_seed=42,
    split_size=0.66
)
print(f">> val split length {len(ds_v)}")

ds_vd = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="val-div",
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    div_seed=42,
    split_size=0.66
)
qv = set(ds_vd.qa_data)
print(f">> val-div split length {len(ds_vd)}")

ds_td = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="test-div",
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    div_seed=42,
    split_size=0.66
)
qt = set(ds_td.qa_data)
print(f">> test-div split length {len(ds_td)}")

print(f"\n>> intersection length {len(qv.intersection(qt))}")
print(f"\n>> union length {len(qv.union(qt))}")
           5 QA-pairs indexed
           5 QA-pairs used
>> val split length 5
           3 QA-pairs indexed
           3 QA-pairs used
>> val-div split length 3
           2 QA-pairs indexed
           2 QA-pairs used
>> test-div split length 2

>> intersection length 0

>> union length 5

Restricting the number of loaded images#

It is also possible to restrict the number of questions indexed. By setting max_img_idx = n only the first n images (in alphabetical order based on their S2-name) will be loaded. A max_img_idx of None, -1 or larger than the number of images in the csv file(s) (in this case 25) equals to load-all-images behaviour.

_ = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    max_len=5,
    tokenizer=tokenizer
)
Hide code cell output
          10 QA-pairs indexed
           5 QA-pairs used

Select Number of Classes or specific Answers#

For some applications, it is relevant to have only a certain number of classes as valid output. To prevent a dimension explosion, the number of classes can be limited. For the ‘train’ split, it is then automatically determined which combination of classes results in the highest reduction of the dataset.

train_ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="train",
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    num_classes=3
)
Hide code cell output
           5 QA-pairs indexed
           5 QA-pairs used

These selected answers can be re-used in other splits or limited if only a subset is required.

Note

The number of classes does not necessarily match the number of answers. If there are fewer answers then classes, the last classes will never be encoded in the one-hot encoded answer vector. If there are more, an IndexError will happen during accessing a non encode-able element.

print(f"Train DS: {train_ds.answers}")

ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="val",
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    selected_answers=train_ds.answers
)
print(f"Val DS 1: {ds.answers}")

ds = HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    split="val",
    tokenizer=tokenizer,
    selected_answers=train_ds.answers[:2],
)
print(f"Val DS 2: {ds.answers}")
Train DS: ['0.0m2', 'highdensity', 'topleft']
Val DS 1: ['0.0m2', 'highdensity']
Val DS 2: ['0.0m2', 'highdensity']

HRVQADataModule#

This class is a Lightning Data Module, that wraps the HRVQADataSet. It automatically generates DataLoader per split with augmentations, shuffling, etc., depending on the split. All images are resized and normalized and images in the train set additionally basic-augmented via noise and flipping/rotation. The train split is also shuffled, however this can be overwritten (see below). To use a DataModule, the setup() function has to be called. This populates the Dataset splits inside the DataModule. Note, that there is no Test split with answers provided in this dataset and therefore cannot be used here.

from configilm.extra.DataModules import HRVQA_DataModule
dm = HRVQA_DataModule.HRVQADataModule(
    data_dirs=my_data_path  # path to dataset
)
print("Before:")
print(dm.train_ds)
print(dm.val_ds)
print(dm.test_ds)
Before:
None
None
None
dm.setup(stage="fit")
print("After:")
print(dm.train_ds)
print(dm.val_ds)
print(dm.test_ds)
After:
<configilm.extra.DataSets.HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet object at 0x7fb5169f0f70>
<configilm.extra.DataSets.HRVQA_DataSet.HRVQADataSet object at 0x7fb5035d2bf0>
None

Afterwards the pytorch DataLoader can be easily accessed. Note, that \(len(DL) = \lceil \frac{len(DS)}{batch\_size} \rceil\), therefore here with the default batch_size of 16: 25/16 -> 2.

train_loader = dm.train_dataloader()
print(len(train_loader))
1

The DataModule has in addition to the DataLoader settings a parameter each for data_dir, image_size and max_img_idx which are passed through to the DataSet.

DataLoader settings#

The DataLoader have four settable parameters: batch_size, num_workers_dataloader, shuffle and pin_memory with 16, os.cpu_count() / 2, None and None as their default values.

A shuffle of None means, that the train set is shuffled but validation and test are not. Pinned Memory will be set if a CUDA device is found, otherwise it will be of. However, this behaviour can be overwritten with pin_memory. Changing some of these settings will be accompanied by a Message-Hint printed.

dm = HRVQA_DataModule.HRVQADataModule(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    batch_size=4,
    tokenizer=tokenizer
)
dm.setup(stage="fit")
print(len(dm.train_dataloader()))
2
_ = HRVQA_DataModule.HRVQADataModule(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    shuffle=False
)
Hide code cell output
/home/runner/work/ConfigILM/ConfigILM/configilm/extra/DataModules/ClassificationVQADataModule.py:109: UserWarning: Shuffle was set to False. This is not recommended for most configuration. Use shuffle=None (default) for recommended configuration.
  warn(
_ = HRVQA_DataModule.HRVQADataModule(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    num_workers_dataloader=2
)
_ = HRVQA_DataModule.HRVQADataModule(
    data_dirs=my_data_path,  # path to dataset
    pin_memory=False
)